Major Tax Rate and Base Changes - Tables 2, 19A and 19B
NOTE: The data in these tables reflect fiscal years ending September 30 through 1929, ending March 31 through 1952 and June 30 thereafter. These tables include only taxes levied by the state, not local governments.
Retail Sales and Use Taxes
Tax of 2.0% enacted on sales or use of tangible personal property, 5/1/35. Rate changes: to 3.0%, 5/1/41; to 3.33%, 5/1/55; to 4.0%, 4/1/59; to 4.2%, 6/1/65; to 4.5%, 7/1/67; to 4.6%, 6/1/76; to 4.5%, 7/1/79; to 5.5% 12/4/81; to 5.4%, 5/1/82; and to 6.5%, 3/1/83. Certain services are taxable: tangible personal property in 1939, real property in 1941, hotel/motel accommodations in 1951 and amusement/recreation in 1961. Deferral of sales tax allowed for certain plant expansions by manufacturers: 1972-82 and starting again in 1985. Food for off-premises consumption is exempt, 7/1/78 (taxable again from 5/1/82 to 6/30/83). Business and long distance telephone service is taxable in 1983. Exemption for trade-ins allowed in 1984. Tax extended to a variety of personal services, e.g., landscape maintenance, guided tours, physical fitness, 7/1/93. Tax deferral/exemption for high tech firms, 1994. Exemption for manufacturing machinery, 7/1/95. Statewide deferral for new manufacturers repealed, but deferral for distressed areas converted to exemption, 7/1/95. Effective 1/1/96, local sales tax of 0.017% applied to all taxable sales in King County; amount is transferred from state tax receipts to provide funding for professional baseball stadium. Remittance of state sales tax for warehouse and distribution facilities, 5/20/97. New local sales taxes credited against the state tax: professional baseball stadium, 0.016% (1/1/96); professional football stadium, 0.017% (8/1/97); and for public facilities in distressed rural counties, 0.04% (7/1/98).
Motor Fuel Taxes
Gas tax enacted at 1 cent/gallon, 7/1/21. Rate changes: 2 cents, 7/1/29; 4 cents, 4/1/31; 5 cents, 4/1/33; 6.5 cents, 3/21/49; 7.5 cents, 4/1/61; 9 cents, 5/1/67; 11 cents, 7/1/77; 12 cents, 7/1/79; 13.5 cents, 7/1/81; 12 cents, 1/1/82; 16 cents, 7/1/83; 18 cents, 7/1/84; 22 cents, 4/1/90; and 23 cents, 4/1/91. Constitutional amendment dedicated tax to road purposes, 1944. Related taxes enacted: special fuel tax in 1941, fuel importer tax in 1963 and aircraft fuel tax n 1967. Fuel importer tax repealed, 1995.
Beer and Wine Excise Taxes
Special excise taxes enacted: $1.00/barrel for beer, 1/23/34 and 10 cents/gallon for wine, 6/17/35. Beer tax increase to $1.50/barrel equivalent for can or bottles, 1965. Additional 26% tax for wine, 1969; replaced by 75 cents/gallon tax in 1973. Beer tax increased to $2.60 and wine changed to 20.25 cents/liter, 7/1/81. Additional surtaxes in 1982 and 1983. Rate increases to fund drug programs, 6/1/89: wine, 22.92 cents/liter; strong wine, 45.36 cents/liter and beer $4.78/barrel. Rate increased for beer tax to $5.742, 7/1/93; to $7.172, 7/1/95; and to $9.562, 7/1/97. Beer tax reduced by $1.48 to $8.08/barrel, 7/1/97.
Liquor Sales Tax (Percentage)
Tax on hard liquor enacted at 10% of wholesale price, 5/1/35. Additional "war" liquor tax of 10% imposed, 1943-1949. Both taxes repealed in 1949 but 10% rate reinstituted in 1951. Rate increased to 15% for sales to consumers; lower rate remains for bars that resell liquor by the drink. Surtaxes in 1982-1983 increase rates to 17.1% and 11.4%. Rate increased for health care to 18.7%, 7/1/93; to 19.7%, 7/1/95; and to 20.7%, 7/1/97.
Liquor Liter Tax (Volume)
Additional tax on hard liquor enacted at 1.1 cents/ounce, 4/15/61. Rate increased to 2 cents, 6/1/65, 4 cents, 7/1/71, and 5 cents, 7/1/81. Changed to metric basis at $1.72/liter in 1981 and additional surtaxes in 1982 and 1983 increased rate to $1.96/liter. Rate increased to $2.03/liter, 7/1/90 and proceeds dedicated to drug programs. Rate increased for health care to $2.23, 7/1/93; to $2.33, 7/1/95; and to $2.44, 7/1/97.
Enacted at 1 cent/pack of 20 cigarettes, 5/1/35. Rate increases: 2 cents, 5/1/39; 4 cents, 11/28/49; 5 cents, 5/1/55; 6 cents, 6/11/59; 7 cents, 4/15/61; 11 cents, 6/1/65; 16 cents, 6/1/71; 20 cents, 7/1/81; 20.8 cents, 5/1/82; 23 cents, 8/1/82; 31 cents, 4/1/86 (proceeds dedicated to water quality programs); and 34 cents, 6/1/89 (proceeds dedicated to drug programs). Additional rates for health care funding: 20 cents, 7/1/93; increases to 22.5 cents, 7/1/94; to 40 cents, 7/1/95; and to 41 cents, 7/1/96. Rate for drug education increased from 3 cents to 10.5 cents, 7/1/95. Combined rate = 82.5 cents.
Tobacco Products Tax
Enacted on cigars, chewing tobacco, etc. at 25% of wholesale price, 7/1/59. Rate increases: 30%, 6/1/65; 45%, 6/1/71; 46.8%, 5/1/82; 48.15%, 8/1/82; 64.9%, 4/1/86 (proceeds dedicated to water quality programs). Additional 10% rate for health care brings the total rate to 74.9%, 7/1/93.
Convention Center Tax
State tax on hotel/motel accommodations at facilities with 60 or more units to finance the state convention center in Seattle, 4/1/82. Initial rates: 3.0% in Seattle and 2.0% throughout remainder of King County; increased to 5.0% in Seattle, 1/1/83; to 6.0% and 2.4%, 7/1/88 and to 7.0% and 2.8%, 1/1/93.
Replacement Tire Tax
Replacement vehicle tire subject to tax of 0.12% of gross sales in 1985. Changed to $1.00/tire, 10/1/89. Tax expired, 9/30/94.
Refuse Collection Taxes
Garbage collection removed from public utility tax and subject to separate 3.6% tax, 6/11/86. Additional 1.0% tax on solid waste customers, 7/1/89 through 6/30/95.
Wood Stove Fee
New wood stove subject to $5 fee, 1/1/88. Increased to $15, 6/7/90 and to $30, 1/1/92.
Brokered Natural Gas Tax
Special "use" tax of 3.852% on natural gas not subject to public utility tax, 7/1/90.
Rental Car Tax
MVET on rental vehicles eliminated but replaced by additional sales tax of 5.9% (in addition to existing state and local retail sales tax) levied on customers of rental car companies, 1/1/93. Also, local rental car taxes authorized.
Business and Occupation Tax
B&O tax enacted 5/1/35 on gross receipts of all businesses: 0.25% for most activities and 0.5% for services. (Replaced a similar business activities tax, imposed 3/21/33.) Surtaxes applied to all B&O rates: 20%, 11/1/51; increased to 60%, 5/1/55; and to 76%, 4/1/59. Surtax of 6%, 6/1/76 through 6/30/79. Surtax of 4%, 4/1/82; increased to 7%, 7/1/82. Resulting major rates: manufacturing/wholesaling, 0.484%; retailing, 0.471%; service, 1.5%. Tax extended to financial institutions, 1970. Credit for certain sales taxes paid by manufacturers. Credit for pollution control facilities, 1967. Credit for personal property taxes paid on business inventories: 1974-1984. Credit for manufacturing tax against wholesaling/retailing tax and credit for similar taxes paid in other states, 8/12/87. Tax extended to public and nonprofit hospitals with receipts dedicated to health care; rate is 0.75%, 7/1/93; increased to 1.5%, 7/1/95. Tax rates increased for all activities except retailing, effective 7/1/93. New permanent rate classifications: business services, 2.5% and financial services, 1.7%. Permanent increase in rate for remaining services from 1.5% to 2.0%. Temporary surtax of 6.5% until 7/1/97 for most other activities except business services, financial services, public and nonprofit hospitals becomes 0.515% and services becomes 2.13%. Surtax reduced to 4.5%, 1/1/95. Minimum taxable amount of $1,000/month replaced by credit against tax liability of $35/month. Rate reduction for insurance to 0.55% (plus surtax), 7/1/95. Reduction in service rates, effective 1/1/96: business services to 2.0%; financial services to 1.6% and other services to 1.75% (1.829% with surtax until 7/1/97). Minimum gross receipts required to file tax returns established at $24,000, 1996. All service rates revert to 1.5%, 7/1/98. Tax on internal distributions repealed, 7/1/98. Consolidation of minor B&O tax rates effective 7/1/98; reduces number of tax rates from 13 to 6.
Public Utility Tax
Tax enacted in lieu of B&O tax on gross operating receipts of public service companies, 5/1/35: railroad, express, electric power, telephone & telegraph, 3.0%; distribution of natural gas, 2.0%; urban transportation and tugboats, 0.5%; motor transportation (e.g., trucking) and all other activities, 1.5%. Surtax applied to all rates: 10%, 11/1/51; increased to 20%, 5/1/57. Surtax of 4%, 4/1/82; increased to 7%, 7/1/82. Water distribution increased to 5.029%, 7/1/85. Activities shifted from B&O tax: garbage collection, 5.029% and sewerage, 3.852%, 7/1/85. Electric power rate increased to 3.873%, 5/11/89. Activities removed from tax: telephone service in 1983, warehousing in 1986, and garbage collection in 1986. Rate for railroads and railcar companies reduced to 1.926%, 1996. Minimum gross receipts required for reporting increased to $24,000, 1996.
Tax of 0.015% on gross receipts of businesses whose products they handle relate to the litter problem, 5/21/71. Tax reported on each tax return, rather than annually, effective 1/1/99.
Insurance Premiums Tax
Tax enacted on gross premiums received by insurance companies at 2.0% rate, 4/1/1891. Retaliatory provision, providing higher rates for companies of other states depending on how they tax Washington companies, adopted in 1911. Rate of 1.0% for domestic companies in 1937 and 0.75% for ocean marine insurance in 1949. Rate increase of 0.16 and surtax of 4.0% in 1982. Domestic and foreign rate consolidated at 2.0% with ocean marine rate remaining at 0.95%, 7/1/86. Health maintenance organizations subject to tax of 2.0%, 1/1/94.
Tax of 5% on gross receipts of parimutuel betting machines at horse races, 3/3/33. Rates reduced in 1979, 1982, 1985 and 1991. Current permanent rate schedule: 0.5% for certain nonprofit meets, 1.0% for receipts up to $250,000 and 2.5% for larger meets. Temporary reduction in tax rates for FY99-FY01.
Boxing and Wrestling Tax
Tax of 5% on gross ticket sales of boxing and wrestling matches, 7/1/33.
State Property Tax
Data reflect levies until 1952; actual collections thereafter. Prior to adoption of the first 40 mill limit in 1932, the state levy ranged from 10 to 15 mills. It was lowered to 5 mills in 1933 and 2 mills in 1935, until it was increased to 4 mills in 1967. In 1974 the state levy was eliminated, but replaced in 1975 by a levy of $3.60/1,000 of assessed value (adjusted to reflect market value). Subject to 106% limit in 1979. One-time reduction in levy rate of 4.7% for 1996 collections; extended to 1997 and then made permanent starting with 1998 collections. Assessed values frozen at 1995 levels for senior citizens and disabled homeowners with disposable income less than $28,000, eff. for taxes due in 1996. Annual growth limit reduced to rate of inflation in 1998.
Vehicle Excise Taxes
Motor vehicle excise tax of 1.5% in lieu of personal property tax, 1/1/38. Aircraft excise tax of 1.0%, 6/8/49. House trailers taxed separated at 1.0%, 6/8/55. MVET increased to 2.0%, 4/1/59, and house trailer tax increased to 1.5%, 6/1/65. Aircraft tax changed from 1.0% to $15 or $25 (multi-engine) in 1967 and to a schedule ranging from $20 to $125 in 1983. Mobile home excluded from house trailer tax in 1973 but subject to property tax. Campers included with travel trailers in the house trailer tax which was reduced to 1.0%, 5/23/72. MVET increased to 2.2%, 8/1/77, to 2.354%, in 1982 and to 2.454% in 1989. MVET rate reduced to 2.2% in 1991. Watercraft excise tax levied in 1983 at rate of 0.5% of fair market value (depreciated purchase price). Camper/travel trailer tax increased to 1.1%, 9/1/90. Tax credit of $30 per vehicle, effective 7/1/99.
PUD Privilege Tax
Tax of 2.0% of gross revenue of public utility districts in lieu of property tax, 3/25/41. Additional tax of 5% of first 4 mills added in 1959. Rates increased to 2.14% and 5.35% in 1982. Nuclear plant at Hanford subject to 1.5% tax in 1977.
Timber Excise Tax
Severance tax on stumpage value of timber harvested from private lands; rate phased in 1972-1974 to 6.5%. Public lands added in 1982. Rate phased down to 5.0%, 1984-1988. Currently the state tax is 1.0% for harvests on private lands and 5.0% for public lands (counties receive 4% for private lands). Data for this source in the tables reflects distributions, not collections.
Leasehold Excise Tax
Tax on the rental value of leases of publicly owned property (i.e. exempt from property taxes) levied 1/1/76 at 12%. Credit for local leasehold taxes up to 6%. Combined rate increased to 12.84% in 1982.
Tax on inheritances levied 6/6/1901 with rates ranging from 1% - 12% depending upon the relationship of heir to decedent and the amount inherited. Gift tax with rates equal to 90% of inheritance tax levied 3/21/41. Both taxes repealed by the voters in 1981, effective 1/1/82. Remaining estate tax equal to the amount of credit for state taxes allowed under the federal tax (no additional tax to the estate).
Real Estate Excise Tax
Initially imposed as a county tax in 1951, the 1.0% tax on sales of real property was shifted to the state, effective 9/1/81. Rate was increased to 1.07% in 1982 and to 1.28% (to include the former conveyance tax), 5/18/87. An additional 0.06% rate was levied 1987-1989. Tax extended to transfers of control of real property, 7/1/93.
Tax on commercial possession of food fish or shellfish, effective 7/1/80. Initial rates ranged from 0.07 - 5.0%; with surtaxes in 1982 they now range up to 5.35%. Anadromous game fish (steelhead) added in 1983. Rates increased effective 1/1/94: chinook salmon and steelhead, 5.62%; pink and sockeye salmon, 3.37%; oysters, 0.086% and all other food fish and shellfish, 2.25%.
Hazardous Substance Tax
Initial tax imposed 1/1/88 at 0.8% of wholesale value of designated substances which pose a threat to the environment. Current tax, adopted by initiative effective 3/1/89, is 0.7% but with a broader base.
Mobile Home Fee
Annual fee of $1 on each occupied mobile home lot, collected in 1989 and 1990. Ruled unconstitutional, 8/6/90. Repealed in 1995.
Carbonated Beverage Tax
Tax on soft drinks, 1 cent/12 ounce container or 75 cents/gallon of concentrate; imposed 7/1/89 through 6/30/95. Carbonated beverage tax expires 7/1/95, but the "syrup" tax increased to $1.00/gallon.
Petroleum Products Tax
Tax on first possession of petroleum products equal to 0.5% of wholesale value, 7/1/89. Tax suspended 7/1/92 as the maximum fund balance is reached. Program to expire, 6/1/2001.
Oil Spill Tax
Tax on petroleum products imported via navigable waters equal to 5 cents/42 gallon barrel, 10/1/91.
Hazardous Waste Fees
Annual fee of $35 for generators of certain waste products, 7/31/90; plus an additional fee determined by the Department of Ecology, starting 7/31/91.
Administration transferred to DOE, 1995.
Air Pollution Fees
Annual fees levied on industrial polluters that emit from 100 - 7,500 tons of pollutants into the atmosphere. Initial fee covers 1990 and 1991. Interim fees equal to $10 per ton, with future amounts to be recommended by DOE.
Medicaid receipts of private and nonprofit hospitals subject to tax of 20%, 9/1/91. Intended to increase federal matching funds for Medicaid. The tax was disallowed by federal OMB, effective 10/1/92. Another tax of 15% levied on the income of intermediate residential (IMR) health care facilities for the mentally retarded, 4/1/92. Rate reduced to 6.0% subject to order of federal government.
Fuel Oil Tax
Tax of 0.25 cents/gallon levied 5/1/35; repealed 6/11/47.
Express Company Excise Tax
Tax of 5% of gross receipts levied on express (shipping) companies, 4/1/1907; repealed in 1945.
Mechanical Devices Tax
Tax of 10% or 20% of gross yield levied on certain gambling devices, 5/1/41. Rates doubled to 20% and 40%, 3/20/47. Slot machines ruled illegal by State Supreme Court in 1952, effectively eliminating the tax.
Tax of 50 cents/$500 of value imposed on transfers of real property, 5/1/35. Increased to 53.5 cents in 1982 and to $1.00, 7/1/85. The tax as a separate source was repealed 5/18/87 but it was effectively incorporated in the real estate excise tax.
Tax of 1 cent per 20 cents of ticket price for admission to most events except public school activities, 5/1/35. Repealed as a state tax, 5/1/43, but local governments permitted to levy a 5% admissions tax.
Enhanced 911 Telephone Tax
State tax of 20 cents per switched telephone access line, effective 1/1/92. Collection of the tax shifted to Dept. of Revenue, 1/1/99.